В основе «Воззвания Земли» лежит гораздо более широкий спектр исследований. Здесь приведены лишь несколько наиболее авторитетных примеров.

Критические пороги в системе Земли

IPCC (2013),
Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by T. F. Stocker, D. Qin, G. -K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex, and P. M. Midgley, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, U. K.

Таяние вечной мерзлоты как критическая точка

Cory, Rose M., et al. (2013),
Surface exposure to sunlight stimulates CO2 release from permafrost soil carbon in the Arctic, PNAS, 110.9, 3429-3434.

Таяние льдов в Антарктике

Joughin, I., Smith, B. E. and Medley, B. (2014)
Marine Ice Sheet Collapse Potentially Underway for the Thwaites Glacier Basin, West Antarctica., Science, 735.

Mouginot, J., Rignot, E. and Scheuchl, B. (2014)
Sustained increase in ice discharge from the Amundsen Sea Embayment, West Antarctica , from 1973 to 2013, 1576–1584.

Rignot, E., Mouginot, J., Morlighem, M., Seroussi, H. and Scheuchl, B. (2014)
Widespread, rapid grounding line retreat of Pine Island, Thwaites, Smith, and Kohler glaciers, West Antarctica, from 1992 to 2011, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 3502–3509.

Возвратные эффекты и самоусиление климатических изменений

Archer, D. (2007)
Methane hydrate stability and anthropogenic climate change, Biogeosciences, 4, 521–544.

Box, J. E., X. Fettweis, J. C. Stroeve, M. Tedesco, D. K. Hall, and K. Steffen (2012),
Greenland ice sheet albedo feedback: Thermodynamics and atmospheric drivers, The Cryosphere, 6, 821–839.

Schaphoff, S., U. Heyder, S. Ostberg, D. Gerten, J. Heinke, and W. Lucht (2013),
Contribution of permafrost soils to the global carbon budget, Environ. Res. Lett., 8, 014026.

Подъем уровня моря

IPCC (2013),
Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by T. F. Stocker, D. Qin, G. -K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex, and P. M. Midgley, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, U. K., Chapter 13, Table 13.5, page 1183.

Levermann, Anders, et al. (2013)
The multimillennial sea-level commitment of global warming, PNAS, 110.34, 13745-13750.

Волны жары

Rahmstorf, Stefan and Dim Coumou (2011)
Increase of extreme events in a warming world, 108 (44) 17905- 17909.

Постоянные засухи

Dai, A. (2013)
Increasing drought under global warming in observations and models, Nature Climate Change, 3(1), 52-58.

Беспрецедентные наводнения

Hirabayashi, Y., et al. (2013)
Global flood risk under climate change, Nature Climate Change, 3(9), 816-821.


Восемь элементов Парижского соглашения по климату

1. Мировые государства должны претворить в жизнь свои обязательства и не допустить глобального потепления больше чем на 2 °C.

IPCC (2014b),
Climate change 2014: Mitigation of climate change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by O. Edenhofer, R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, E. Farahani, S. Kadner, K. Seyboth, A. Adler, I. Baum, S. Brunner, P. Eickemeier, B. Kriemann, J. Savolainen, S. Schlömer, C. von Stechow, T. Zwickel and J. C. Minx, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, U. K.

Rogelj, J., M. Meinshausen & R. Knutti (2012)
Global warming under old and new scenarios using IPCC climate sensitivity range estimates, Nature Climate Change, 2, 248-253.

2. Глобальный углеродный бюджет, соблюдение которого позволит нам удержаться на рубеже 2 °C, составляет значительно меньше 1000 Гт CO2.

IPCC (2014b),
Climate change 2014: Mitigation of climate change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by O. Edenhofer, R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, E. Farahani, S. Kadner, K. Seyboth, A. Adler, I. Baum, S. Brunner, P. Eickemeier, B. Kriemann, J. Savolainen, S. Schlömer, C. von Stechow, T. Zwickel and J. C. Minx, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, U. K.

Meinshausen, M., et al. (2009),
Greenhouse-gas emission targets for limiting global warming to 2°C, Nature, 458, 1158–1162.

Rogelj, J., M. Meinshausen & R. Knutti (2012)
Global warming under old and new scenarios using IPCC climate sensitivity range estimates, Nature Climate Change, 2, 248-253.

UNEP (2013)
The Emissions Gap Report 2013.
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Nairobi.

3. Достижение нулевого углеродного баланса к 2050 году является чрезвычайно важным условием будущего процветания.

Griggs, D., et al. (2013),
Policy: Sustainable development goals for people and planet, Nature, 495, 305– 307.

Global risk and opportunity indicator (GROI) (2013), http://global-risk-indicator.net/

Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations (IDDRI) and Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN) (2014)
Pathways to Deep Decarbonization. 2014 Report.
SDSN, New York and Paris.

IPCC (2014b),
Climate change 2014: Mitigation of climate change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by O. Edenhofer, R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, E. Farahani, S. Kadner, K. Seyboth, A. Adler, I. Baum, S. Brunner, P. Eickemeier, B. Kriemann, J. Savolainen, S. Schlömer, C. von Stechow, T. Zwickel and J. C. Minx, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, U. K.

Rogelj J, McCollum D & Smith S. (2014)
What emission levels will comply with temperature limits? Chapter 2 in UNEP. The Emissions Gap Report, Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP.

The Global Commission on the Economy and Climate (2014)
Better Growth – Better Climate. The New Climate Economy Report, Washington D.C.

4. Каждая страна должна наметить свой путь сокращения выбросов в рамках углубленной декарбонизации. Ведущая роль отводится развитым странам.

GH, Brundtland, and World Commission on Environment and Development (1987)
Our Common Future: Report of the World Commission On Environment and Development.
Oxford University.

Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations (IDDRI) and Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN) (2014)
Pathways to Deep Decarbonization. 2014 Report, SDSN, New York and Paris.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (2013)
Putting Green Growth at the Heart of Development, OECD publishing, Paris, http://www.oecd.org/dac/environment-development/putting- green-growth-at-the-heart-of-development.htm.

5. Мы должны поднять волну климатических инноваций на благо всего мира и обеспечить всеобщий доступ к существующим наработкам.

GEA (2012),
Global Energy Assessment - Toward a Sustainable Future, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge UK the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.

IEA (2014),
The power of transformation – Wind, Sun and the economics of flexible power systems, International Energy Agency, Paris.

IMF, (2014)
Energy subsidy reform – lessons and implications, Report, Washington DC.

World Energy Council (2013),
World Energy Resources. 2013 Survey, World Energy Council, London, U. K.

6. Нам нужна глобальная стратегия по снижению уязвимости, повышению устойчивости и предотвращению потерь и ущерба от климатического воздействия. Стратегия должна предусматривать коллективные действия и масштабную поддержку.

Изменение климата уже ощущается

Schellnhuber, HJ, et al. (2013)
Turn down the heat: climate extremes, regional impacts, and the case for resilience - full report, Washington DC, World Bank, June.

IPCC (2014a),
Climate change 2014: Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by C. B. Field, V. R. Barros, D. J. Dokken, K. J. Mach, M. D. Mastrandrea, T. E. Bilir, M. Chatterjee, K. L. Ebi, Y. O. Estrada, R. C. Genova, B. Girma, E. S. Kissel, A. N. Levy, S. MacCracken, P. R. Mastrandrea, and L. L. White, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, U. K.

Продовольственная безопасность 

T. Wheeler and J. von Braun:
Climate Change Impacts on Global Food Security, 2 August 2013: 341 (6145), 508-513.

Здоровье людей 

McMichael, Tony, Hugh Montgomery, and Anthony Costello (2012)
Health risks, present and future, from global climate change
BMJ 344, e1359.

World Health Organisation (2014)
7 million premature deaths annually linked to air pollution, News release 25 March.

7. Поглотители углерода и жизненно необходимые экосистемы не менее важны для защиты климата, чем сокращение выбросов.

Gatti, L. V., et al. (2014)
Drought sensitivity of Amazonian carbon balance revealed by atmospheric measurements, Nature, 506(7486), 76-80.

Ostberg, S., W. Lucht, S. Schaphoff, and D. Gerten (2013)
Critical impacts of global warming on land ecosystems, Earth Syst. Dynam., 4, 347–357.

Rockström, J. et al. (2009),
Planetary Boundaries: Exploring the Safe Operating Space for Humanity, Ecology and Society, 14:2, 32.

Rockström, J., Sachs, J.D., Öhman, M.C., Schmidt-Traub, G. (2013)
Sustainable Development and Planetary Boundaries, SDSN, New York and Paris.

The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) (2010)
The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity Ecological and Economic Foundations, edited by Pushpam Kumar, Earthscan, London and Washington.

Warren, Rachel, et al. (2011)
Increasing impacts of climate change upon ecosystems with increasing global mean temperature rise, Climatic Change, 106.2, 141-177.

8. Дополнительное государственное финансирование для смягчения последствий и адаптации на уровне, сопоставимом с действующей программой ODA (135 млрд долл. США в год)

GEA (2012)
Global Energy Assessment - Toward a Sustainable Future, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge UK the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria

The Leadership Council of the Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN) (2015),
Key Elements of a Successful Addis Ababa Accord on Financing for Sustainable Development, Working Paper, March 19.

Sachs, J. and Schmidt-Traub, G. (2013)
Financing for development and climate change post-2015, SDSN Briefing Paper, Paris, France and New York, USA: SDSN.

The Global Commission on the Economy and Climate (2014)
Better Growth – Better Climate. The New Climate Economy Report, Washington D.C.

© The Earth Statement 2015, by the Earth League: the-earth-league.org

Я поддерживаю «Воззвание Земли» к мировым лидерам с целью реализации масштабных, научно обоснованных и справедливых положений Парижского соглашения, которые позволят нам не допустить глобального потепления более чем на 2 градуса.