Earth Statement Key Reference List
While a much wider range of research underpins the conclusions of the Earth Statement, here we provide a few particularly important examples.
Thresholds in the Earth System
IPCC (2013),
Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
, edited by T. F. Stocker, D. Qin, G. -K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex, and P. M. Midgley, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, U. K.
Lenton, T. M., Held, H., Kriegler, E., Hall, J. W., Lucht, W., Rahmstorf, S. and Schellnhuber, H. J. (2008),
Tipping elements in the Earth’s climate system
, PNAS, 105(6), 1786–93.
Robinson, A., R. Calov, and A. Ganopolski (2012),
Multistability and critical thresholds of the Greenland ice sheet
, Nat. Clim. Change, 2, 429–432.
Permafrost melting as tipping point
Cory, Rose M., et al. (2013),
Surface exposure to sunlight stimulates CO2 release from permafrost soil carbon in the Arctic
, PNAS, 110.9, 3429-3434.
Melting in Antarctica
Joughin, I., Smith, B. E. and Medley, B. (2014)
Marine Ice Sheet Collapse Potentially Underway for the Thwaites Glacier Basin, West Antarctica.
, Science, 735.
Mouginot, J., Rignot, E. and Scheuchl, B. (2014)
Sustained increase in ice discharge from the Amundsen Sea Embayment, West Antarctica , from 1973 to 2013
, , 1576–1584.
Rignot, E., Mouginot, J., Morlighem, M., Seroussi, H. and Scheuchl, B. (2014)
Widespread, rapid grounding line retreat of Pine Island, Thwaites, Smith, and Kohler glaciers, West Antarctica, from 1992 to 2011
, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 3502–3509.
Feedbacks and self-amplified climate change
Archer, D. (2007)
Methane hydrate stability and anthropogenic climate change
, Biogeosciences, 4, 521–544.
Box, J. E., X. Fettweis, J. C. Stroeve, M. Tedesco, D. K. Hall, and K. Steffen (2012),
Greenland ice sheet albedo feedback: Thermodynamics and atmospheric drivers
, The Cryosphere, 6, 821–839.
Schaphoff, S., U. Heyder, S. Ostberg, D. Gerten, J. Heinke, and W. Lucht (2013),
Contribution of permafrost soils to the global carbon budget
, Environ. Res. Lett., 8, 014026.
Sea-level rise
IPCC (2013),
Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
, edited by T. F. Stocker, D. Qin, G. -K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex, and P. M. Midgley, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, U. K., Chapter 13, Table 13.5, page 1183.
Levermann, Anders, et al. (2013)
The multimillennial sea-level commitment of global warming
, PNAS, 110.34, 13745-13750.
Heat waves
Rahmstorf, Stefan and Dim Coumou (2011)
Increase of extreme events in a warming world
, 108 (44) 17905- 17909.
Persistent droughts
Dai, A. (2013)
Increasing drought under global warming in observations and models
, Nature Climate Change, 3(1), 52-58.
Unprecedented floods
Hirabayashi, Y., et al. (2013)
Global flood risk under climate change
, Nature Climate Change, 3(9), 816-821.
8 Elements of Climate Action in Paris
  1. Governments must put into practice their commitment to limit global warming to below 2°C.
    IPCC (2014b),
    Climate change 2014: Mitigation of climate change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
    , edited by O. Edenhofer, R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, E. Farahani, S. Kadner, K. Seyboth, A. Adler, I. Baum, S. Brunner, P. Eickemeier, B. Kriemann, J. Savolainen, S. Schlömer, C. von Stechow, T. Zwickel and J. C. Minx, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, U. K.
    Rogelj, J., M. Meinshausen & R. Knutti (2012)
    Global warming under old and new scenarios using IPCC climate sensitivity range estimates
    , Nature Climate Change, 2, 248-253.
  2. Global carbon budget must be well below 1000 Gt CO2 to have a reasonable chance to hold the 2°C line.
    IPCC (2014b),
    Climate change 2014: Mitigation of climate change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
    , edited by O. Edenhofer, R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, E. Farahani, S. Kadner, K. Seyboth, A. Adler, I. Baum, S. Brunner, P. Eickemeier, B. Kriemann, J. Savolainen, S. Schlömer, C. von Stechow, T. Zwickel and J. C. Minx, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, U. K.
    Meinshausen, M., et al. (2009),
    Greenhouse-gas emission targets for limiting global warming to 2°C
    , Nature, 458, 1158–1162.
    Rogelj, J., M. Meinshausen & R. Knutti (2012)
    Global warming under old and new scenarios using IPCC climate sensitivity range estimates
    , Nature Climate Change, 2, 248-253.
    UNEP (2013)
    The Emissions Gap Report 2013.
    United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Nairobi.
  3. Zero-carbon society by 2050 is key to future prosperity.
    Griggs, D., et al. (2013),
    Policy: Sustainable development goals for people and planet
    , Nature, 495, 305– 307.
    Global risk and opportunity indicator (GROI) (2013), http://global-risk-indicator.net/
    Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations (IDDRI) and Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN) (2014)
    Pathways to Deep Decarbonization. 2014 Report.
    SDSN, New York and Paris.
    IPCC (2014b),
    Climate change 2014: Mitigation of climate change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
    , edited by O. Edenhofer, R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, E. Farahani, S. Kadner, K. Seyboth, A. Adler, I. Baum, S. Brunner, P. Eickemeier, B. Kriemann, J. Savolainen, S. Schlömer, C. von Stechow, T. Zwickel and J. C. Minx, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, U. K.
    Rogelj J, McCollum D & Smith S. (2014)
    What emission levels will comply with temperature limits? Chapter 2 in UNEP. The Emissions Gap Report
    , Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP.
    The Global Commission on the Economy and Climate (2014)
    Better Growth – Better Climate. The New Climate Economy Report
    , Washington D.C.
  4. Every country must formulate an emissions pathway consistent with deep decarbonization with developed countries taking the lead.
    GH, Brundtland, and World Commission on Environment and Development (1987)
    Our Common Future: Report of the World Commission On Environment and Development.
    Oxford University.
    Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations (IDDRI) and Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN) (2014)
    Pathways to Deep Decarbonization. 2014 Report
    , SDSN, New York and Paris.
    Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (2013)
    Putting Green Growth at the Heart of Development
    , OECD publishing, Paris, http://www.oecd.org/dac/environment-development/putting- green-growth-at-the-heart-of-development.htm.
  5. We must unleash a wave of climate innovation for the global good, and enable universal access to the solutions we already have
    GEA (2012),
    Global Energy Assessment - Toward a Sustainable Future
    , Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge UK the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    IEA (2014),
    The power of transformation – Wind, Sun and the economics of flexible power systems
    , International Energy Agency, Paris.
    IMF, (2014)
    Energy subsidy reform – lessons and implications
    , Report, Washington DC.
    World Energy Council (2013),
    World Energy Resources. 2013 Survey
    , World Energy Council, London, U. K.
  6. We need a global strategy to reduce vulnerability, build resilience and deal with loss and damage of communities from climate impacts, including collective action and scaled-up support.
    Climate change is already being felt
    Schellnhuber, HJ, et al. (2013)
    Turn down the heat: climate extremes, regional impacts, and the case for resilience - full report
    , Washington DC, World Bank, June.
    IPCC (2014a),
    Climate change 2014: Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
    , edited by C. B. Field, V. R. Barros, D. J. Dokken, K. J. Mach, M. D. Mastrandrea, T. E. Bilir, M. Chatterjee, K. L. Ebi, Y. O. Estrada, R. C. Genova, B. Girma, E. S. Kissel, A. N. Levy, S. MacCracken, P. R. Mastrandrea, and L. L. White, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, U. K.
    Food security
    T. Wheeler and J. von Braun:
    Climate Change Impacts on Global Food Security
    , 2 August 2013: 341 (6145), 508-513.
    Human health
    McMichael, Tony, Hugh Montgomery, and Anthony Costello (2012)
    Health risks, present and future, from global climate change
    BMJ 344, e1359.
    World Health Organisation (2014)
    7 million premature deaths annually linked to air pollution
    , News release 25 March.
  7. Carbon sinks and vital ecosystems are as important for climate protection as the reduction of emissions.
    Gatti, L. V., et al. (2014)
    Drought sensitivity of Amazonian carbon balance revealed by atmospheric measurements
    , Nature, 506(7486), 76-80.
    Ostberg, S., W. Lucht, S. Schaphoff, and D. Gerten (2013)
    Critical impacts of global warming on land ecosystems
    , Earth Syst. Dynam., 4, 347–357.
    Rockström, J. et al. (2009),
    Planetary Boundaries: Exploring the Safe Operating Space for Humanity
    , Ecology and Society, 14:2, 32.
    Rockström, J., Sachs, J.D., Öhman, M.C., Schmidt-Traub, G. (2013)
    Sustainable Development and Planetary Boundaries
    , SDSN, New York and Paris.
    The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) (2010)
    The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity Ecological and Economic Foundations
    , edited by Pushpam Kumar, Earthscan, London and Washington.
    Warren, Rachel, et al. (2011)
    Increasing impacts of climate change upon ecosystems with increasing global mean temperature rise
    , Climatic Change, 106.2, 141-177.
  8. Additional public funding for mitigation and adaptation at a level at least comparable to current global ODA (135 billion USD p.a.)
    GEA (2012)
    Global Energy Assessment - Toward a Sustainable Future
    , Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge UK the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria
    The Leadership Council of the Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN) (2015),
    Key Elements of a Successful Addis Ababa Accord on Financing for Sustainable Development
    , Working Paper, March 19.
    Sachs, J. and Schmidt-Traub, G. (2013)
    Financing for development and climate change post-2015
    , SDSN Briefing Paper, Paris, France and New York, USA: SDSN.
    The Global Commission on the Economy and Climate (2014)
    Better Growth – Better Climate. The New Climate Economy Report
    , Washington D.C.
© The Earth Statement 2015, by the Earth League: the-earth-league.org
I support the Earth Statement’s call on world leaders to deliver an ambitious, science-based and equitable outcome in Paris that sets us on a path to limit global warming to below 2 degrees.